The effect of Targets’ Intercourse and you may Country towards Spoken and you can Performed F0, F0 Range, and you can VTL

Additionally, we used General Linear Models (GLM) to test for possible effects of sex, age, and country on voice attractiveness ratings. Similarly, to test whether mean F0, range F0, and VTL of speech and singing differ between men and women or between Brazilian and Czech participants, we performed a multivariate GLM with mean F0 and F0 range as dependent variables and sex and country of targets as factors. Due to a limited samples size, we evaluated only simple models. The effect size displayed is a partial Eta-squared (?p 2 ).


We found large effects of targets’ sex on all vocal parameters; mean speech F0 (F = , df = 1, 153, p 2 = 0.878), mean speech F0 range (F = , df = 1, 153, p 2 = 0.086), VTL as measured from speech (F = , df = 1,153, p 2 = 0.934), mean singing F0 (F = , df = 1, 153, p 2 = 0.831), mean singing F0 range (F = 7.00, df = 1, 153, p = 0.009, ?p 2 = 0.045), and VTL as measured from singing (F = , df = 1, 153, p 2 = 0.911). Estimated marginal means revealed that women had a higher F0 and F0 range and shorter VTL than men (for mean values, see Table 1). There was also a significant effect of the target country on speech F0 range (F = 4.31, df = 1, 153, p = 0.040, ?p 2 = 0.028), VTL as measured from speech (F = , df = 1,153, p = 0.001, ?p 2 = 0.065), and VTL as measured from singing (F = 6.59, df = 1, 153, p = 0.011, ?p 2 = 0.042). Estimated marginal means show that Czech participants had a lower speech F0 range and longer VTL than the Brazilian participants (see Table 1 for details).

Desk step one. Imply important regularity (F0) in addition to directory of standard volume (F0 diversity) from inside the semitones, and you may VTL (within the centimeters) inside the individuals.

It’s worth listing that mediocre VTL methods for males and you may lady (Dining table 1) compare with inhabitants-height averages (Pisanski et al., 2014).

Comparisons Anywhere between Speaking and you may Singing Sound

F0 measured away from address is strongly certainly synchronised which have F0 mentioned away from vocal in males (roentgen = 0.800, Letter = 73, p 2 = , df = forty-two, p 2 = , df = 49, p = 0.twenty-six in the men, ? 2 = , df = forty-two, p = 0.05 in women). Email address details are therefore stated by themselves for males and you can females however, together having Czech and Brazilian participants.

Having fun with road study (discover Secondary Dining tables S6, S7 to possess full activities), i learned that inside the males, lower-pitched address are rated as more attractive (Figure step one). A comparable kept of singing, but so it dating didn’t come to mathematical advantages. From inside the men, a wide speech range, not vocal assortment, is ranked much more glamorous. Glamorous message is actually absolutely for the overall SOI, however, it dating didn’t maintain steadily its balances for the jackknife resampling. The complete SOI try privately associated with a lowered F0 within the speech and higher F0 in singing. Weight had a powerful and you can positive direct influence on identified message and singing attractiveness. Many years got a terrible impact on message elegance however the impact failed to will still be stable around jackknifing (find Supplementary Table S8).

Profile step one. Street analysis outcomes for F0. Arrows depict estimated parameters. Relationships somewhat distinctive from 0 (conveyed from the strong permutation produced p philosophy) is colored (positive relationship when you look at the eco-friendly, negative inside reddish) and you can labeled that have standard design estimates. Dating you to failed to meet up with the jackknife importance stability requirements was represented which have an excellent dashed line. F0 = average fundamental regularity; WSR = waist-to-neck ratio; and you can WHR = waist-to-hip ratio.